A beaver may work alone or with family members to build a dam, using piled logs and trees secured with mud, masses of plants, rocks, and sticks. [88] Alaska governor William Allen Egan protested the statement, saying the report was out of date due to population growth in Alaska and rising demand for electricity. A "V" shaped gorge in particular is considered an ideal feature for building this type of dam. Stretching an incredible 290,000 acres, the lake measures 35 miles long and 15 miles wide and reaches depths of as … [3] Below the surface of the ground are patches of permafrost, and the area is seismically active. The DRC report, though trumped by the Interior Department's new precedence in such matters, nevertheless released a report in April 1962, stating that the project was economically feasible and would attract new industries to Alaska. Alaska has about 67 named artificial reservoirs, C[›] approximately 167 named dams, C[›] and about 3,197 officially named natural lakes, C[›] B[›] out of over 3,000,000 unnamed natural lakes. The Spurr report determined that the scenarios offered as justification for the project were overly optimistic with respect to Alaska's projected long-term population growth, its per capita use of electricity, and the predicted rate of entry of electroprocess industries like the aluminum industry (which had substantial power requirements) into Alaska. (1,723,337 sq. [34], Despite the Interior Department's rejection of the overall Rampart Dam project, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continued its engineering feasibility study on the project. The audited report was accepted by the U.S. Senate, and no further funding was allocated to study the issue. [37] The installation of power generators was planned to follow as needed, with the last unit scheduled for installation by the 45th year of the project. Campbell Lake Dam: 6.3 mi. In 1964, several groups of Native dam opponents in the Yukon Flats came together to form an organization called Gwitchya Gwitchin Ginkhye, which lobbied against the project. Fiscal conservatives opposed the dam on the grounds of its large cost and limited benefit to Americans outside Alaska. The plan for the dam itself called for a concrete structure 530 feet (162 m) high with a top length of about 4,700 feet (1,430 m). The Fish and Wildlife study released in 1964 was included, as were studies of the impact on the region's Alaska Native population. [94], This article is about the canceled Alaska dam project. [49], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers leaders strongly supported the project in its initial phases. For named artificial reservoirs and dams, see the List of dams and reservoirs in Alaska. See also: Forests, Locales, Mines, Parks, Reserves, and Woods Man-made. [52], Alaska senator Ernest Gruening remained a staunch backer of the project from its inception to its cancellation, and made it a major personal political priority. [12] The dam envisaged storage of about 18,000 acre feet (22,000,000 m3) at the full reservoir level while it is 445 acre feet (549,000 m3) when the water is 25 feet (7.6 m) deep. The first batch of concrete was placed on the dam on July 14, 1913. This man-made lake was created when the W.A.C. The city of Sitka is struggling to pay off the Blue Lake Dam in a big way. This design ensures substantial savings in use of construction material as opposed to the constant–radius arch design. It is reported that by the time the lake was opened for fishing, the fish measured 6 inches (150 mm) and could be caught with a fly of 6–8 inches (150–200 mm). [81] It was feared that construction of the dam would block navigation routes and violate the treaty. [85], Owing to increasing public pressure, in June 1967, United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall announced he was strongly opposed to the dam, citing economic and biological factors as well as the drastic impact on the area's native population. Top Dams in Alaska. Alaska Dam Safety Program Forms Fact Sheet on Dam Safety in Alaska (PDF) Alaska Administrative Code: Official Dam Safety Regulations Association of State Dam Safety Officials [16] Preliminary estimates said the project would cost $900 million (1959 dollars) and generate 4.7 million kilowatts of electricity. [19] To examine the economic feasibility of the dam, the Corps of Engineers created the Rampart Economic Advisory Board (REAB) in February 1961. [1][2][3][4], The dam was built by the Alaska-Gastineau Mining Company to meet the electrical energy needs for mining operations. The theory was first initiated in North America for several dams, and in Alaska in particular, in 1913 with the building of the Salmon Creek Dam, which was completed in 1914. [15] The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1960 passed by the U.S. Congress in that year included a $2 million appropriation to conduct a full four-year feasibility study of the project, including its economic feasibility and the impact it would have on fish and wildlife. Charles F. Cobb P.E. The largest lake in North Dakota, Devils Lake has been affectionately known as the "Perch Capital of the World" since the 1980s. [67] Conservation groups opposed the dam's construction because it would flood the Yukon Flats, a large wetland area that provides breeding ground for millions of waterfowl and habitat for game and fur-bearing animals. (Alaska State Troopers) Left: Salmon Creek Dam in 2006 after rehabilitation; top of the dam 6.5 ft (2.0 m) walkway. [20] This agreement negated much of the work of the REAB to that point,[21] as the Interior Department promptly began its own three-year study of the dam's economic feasibility and environmental impact. Dam Safety Engineer AK Department of Natural Resources 550 W 7th Ave Ste 1020 Anchorage, AK 99501-3562 Email: [email protected] Tel: 907-269-8636 Fax: 907-269-8947 State Program Statistics Davies, Lawrence E. "Alaskans press for a hydroelectric dam on Yukon". [1][2] In this regard, Bartlett Lee Thane, the mining engineer, who made a lasting impact in the mining industry – in the Alaska-Gastineau Mining Company – was instrumental in introducing this design of thin arch dam with help from his former football team mates. At the time, the largest hydroelectric project in Alaska was the Eklutna Dam, which produced just 32,000 kilowatts. Brooks, Paul. When a dam bursts, there is a sudden release of massive volumes of water which flood areas around the dam causing extreme loss of lives and property. The Cochiti Dam … ... this site on the Yukon River would easily be one of the major potential hydroelectric power developments in North America. Becharof Lake, the second* largest lake in Alaska, is located on the Alaskan Peninsula. The dam created the Tarbela Reservoir, which currently has a capacity of 14.3 cubic kilometers (11,600,000 acre-feet). When built, adoption of the constant arch design for the dam reduced costs by 20% because less concrete was needed to construct the dam. U.S. Department of the Interior. Power House 2 was damaged in a fire in 1923. [26] In January 1965, the Bureau of Land Management set aside almost 9,000,000 acres (3,600,000 ha) of land for construction of the dam and reservoir. The dam was planned with a top elevation of 343 feet (105 m) above sea level. On the south bank, the land rises sharply to a ridge 1,500 feet (457 m) high. Be aware that data on volume of structure is not as easily available or reliable as data on dam … Top Dams in Alaska. The 1960 United States Census recorded just 226,127 people as residents of Alaska, making it the least-populated state in the United States at that time. [5][6] Both are operated and maintained by the Alaska Electric Light & Power (AEL&P). "The plot to drown Alaska". In 1916, the average load on the two power stations was 5,187 horsepower (3,868 kW). ... Water. [92], The controversy surrounding the Rampart Dam project illustrated the growing shift in the environmental movement during the 1960s. See generally Stephen J. Spurr, In Search of the Kuskokwim, and Other Great Endeavors: the Life and Times of J. Edward Spurr (Kenmore, Washington: Epicenter Press, 2010). [69] In April of that year, Alaska Sportsman magazine took a formal stand against the project. Bank to bank, the crest length is 640 feet (200 m). In the spring, however, the area around the lake would have been prone to increased precipitation due to the phenomenon of lake-effect snow. [93] Though opposition to Rampart was founded primarily on economic and natural grounds, its consequences for the Alaska Native population in the region reflected later concerns about industrial development in more urban areas. Visit our keyboard shortcuts docs for details Duration: 7 minutes, 25 seconds. Since it was built, over 100 such dams have been constructed all over the world. Located at … [17], The project competed with the smaller-scale Susitna Hydroelectric Project proposed by the Federal Bureau of Reclamation for south-central Alaska, but thanks to Gruening's support and that of other backers, the Rampart project took precedence. The project was planned for … [28] Dam proponents also suggested that the electricity might be transmitted to the rest of the United States, lowering utility prices in those states by increasing the amount of available power. Based on the plans prepared for the concrete arch dam and the two power stations, construction was started in May 1912. However, a 3 miles (4.8 km) long road had been built by AEL&P to the upper powerhouse at the base of the Salmon Creek Dam, which has since been de-commissioned. Alaska Dam Safety Program Forms Fact Sheet on Dam Safety in Alaska (PDF) Alaska Administrative Code: Official Dam Safety Regulations Association of State Dam … It was shut down in December 1974 due to the high cost of operation and maintenance. Alaska has about 3,197 officially named natural lakes, out of over 3,000,000 unnamed natural lakes, approximately 67 named artificial reservoirs, and 167 named dams. Water barrier or embankment built across the course of a stream or into a body of water to control and (or) impound the flow of water. These are the constant–radius arch and the constant-angle arch, the latter design is more complex. [3] The dip of the rock was also steep both on upstream and downstream side of the flat base. Location: Sitka, Alaska, United States The Blue Lake Dam Expansion project is located in Sitka, Alaska and is an expansion of the hydroelectric dam which provides the power for Sitka. Built in 1914, it is the world's first constant-angle arch variable radius dam. Adjoining habitats ordinarily are carrying all the wildlife that the local resources will support. Rather than becoming focused singularly on solely preserving the natural beauty of a particular landscape, as had inspired the creation of the U.S. National Park Service in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century, naturalists and environmentalists began to consider the human cost of development as well. [63] Interior Alaska contained about 28,000 residents,[64] and promoters suggested that the dam's benefits would vastly outweigh the costs to the few residents who would be displaced. [7][8][9], The creek runs for a length of 3 miles (4.8 km) within the watershed, which has a creek divide of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) and a ridge line of 2.2 miles (3.5 km). The report strongly opposed construction of the dam, saying in part, "Nowhere in the history of water development in North America have the fish and wildlife losses anticipated to result from a single project been so overwhelming. Area = 665,384 sq. [12] This design was applied with some modifications for the Salmon Creek Dam, which was designed with constant opening angle of 113° with radius varying from 147.5 feet (45.0 m) at the base to 331 feet (101 m) at the crest. The city of Sitka is struggling to pay off the Blue Lake Dam in a big way. Alaska Electric Light and Power operates and maintains the system. [93], Among Alaska Natives, the Rampart Dam project encouraged organization and the creation of communications links between various like-minded communities and tribal groups. The average width of the stream is 30 feet (9.1 m) and depth of water is about 1.5 feet (0.46 m). [2][5], The lower power house also underwent major rehabilitation measures. The first power station, the upper powerhouse titled 'Powerhouse 2', was located 1 mile (1.6 km) below the dam and had an installation of two units of 1.5 MW capacity each operating under a hydraulic head of 600 feet (180 m). The Salmon Creek Dam is a concrete arch dam on the Salmon Creek, 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Juneau, Alaska. Decommissioned or failed dams, such as Teton Dam … [5], At the proposed dam site, the river is 1,300 feet (396 m) wide and has an elevation of 183 feet (56 m) above sea level. Deteriorated concrete was removed, the dam body was regrouted and the upstream face of the dam was provided with a layer of high strength concrete in the top 45 feet (14 m). [12], The "V" shape of the gorge at the dam site was adjudged ideal for building this type of dam at Salmon Creek site. Anthony Netboy, a salmon biologist employed by Yukon Power for America, claimed that one day, "a housewife in Phoenix or L.A. will fry her eggs at breakfast with electricity generated on the far-off Yukon. [1] However, in the background of masonry arch dams which dominated dam building scenario in the 19th century and with introduction of concrete technology for building dams, the structural design of arch dams underwent a dramatic change in its economic evolution to minimize use of construction material and inter alia, the cost of construction. They were encouraged by a 1962 economic feasibility study by the Development and Resources Corporation, which stated that the electricity generated would attract aluminum, magnesium and titanium industries to the region and help process locally produced minerals. [12] The constant-angle arch design has also a variable–radius arch. According to the Treaty of Washington, signed in 1871, Canada was allowed free navigation of the Yukon River. The largest dam failure in U.S. history - the 1976 Teton Dam breach - was also the largest structural failure of any type in U.S. history, exceeding even the September 11 collapse of the World Trade Center. The gorge is located 31 miles (50 km) downstream of the village of Rampart, 36 miles (58 km) upstream of the village of Tanana, and immediately downstream from the mouth of Texas Creek. [28], In June 1964 the Natural Resources Council asked Stephen H. Spurr, dean of the Graduate School of the University of Michigan and an authority on forestry and forest ecology, to form a group to evaluate the proposed Rampart Dam. In his report, Morgan addresses the potential of the site: Reconnaissance topography indicates several potential dam sites in Lower Ramparts, but the best site probably will be found about 31 miles (50 km) downstream from the village of Rampart. Their habitations are miserable and their livelihood a bare subsistence supplemented by relief. 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